OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY PROGRAM
Anatomy of the female genital apparatus, elements of embryology. Biological bases of reproductive function (steroid hormones, pituitary hormones, prolactin, hypothalamic hormones, oxytocin, inhibin). Ovarian and menstrual cycle. Gynecological clinical and instrumental diagnostics (gynecological examination, oncological cytodiagnostics, colposcopy, gynecological ultrasound, radiological examinations in gynecology, hysteroscopy, gynecological laparoscopy). Intersex states; malformative pathology of the genital apparatus. Menstrual changes; anovulation; dysmenorrhea. Puberty. Menopause. Amenorrhea, hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Contraception (hormonal, intrauterine devices, sterilization). Flogosis of the female genital apparatus (vaginitis, pelvic inflammatory disease). Pelvic floor pathology (urinary incontinence, utero-vaginal prolapse). Sexually transmitted diseases. Endometriosis. fibroids. Diagnosis and infertility therapies. Assisted fertilization techniques. Law 19/02/2004, n° 40 "On medically assisted procreation". Screening of cervicocarcinoma; HPV, Pap test, dysplastic lesions. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix: diagnosis, staging and therapy. Benign endometrial pathology (polyps, hyperplasia). Carcinoma of the endometrium and uterine sarcoma. Ovarian cysts. Ovarian tumors (benign, border-line and malignant). Vulvar dystrophic lesions and carcinoma of the vulva. Trofoblastic neoplasms (hydatiform mole, chorioncarcinoma). Main gynecological interventions (myomectomy, hysterectomy, surgery on appendages, laparoscopy).
Fertilization and implantation. Anatomy and placental physiology. Physiological changes of the main apparatuses during pregnancy. Monitoring protocol for physiological pregnancy. Ultrasound in pregnancy: principles and fundamental notions in obstetric ultrasound diagnostics. Evaluation of fetal well-being: cardiotocography; fetal biophysical profile; Doppler velocimetry. Labor and delivery. Physiology of the puerperium. Evaluation of the newborn (Apgar score, pH on cord blood). Prenatal diagnosis: diagnostic techniques (amniocentesis, villocentesis, cordocentesis) and screening. Puerperium and lactation. Maternal illnesses during pregnancy (urinary tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, cholestasis, pregnancy, cardiopathies during pregnancy, blood diseases during pregnancy, thyroid diseases during pregnancy). Infections during pregnancy: viral infections (cytomegalovirus, rubella, parvovirus, HIV), toxoplasmosis, syphilis. Diabetes during pregnancy. Hypertension in pregnancy. Multiple pregnancy. Preterm birth. Post-term pregnancy. Extrauterine pregnancy. Abortion. Placenta previa and placental detachment. Pathologies of amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios, polydramnios). Rh-alloimmunization, ABO isoimmunization.Intrauterine growth retardation. Childbirth pathologies: dystocia, fetal-pelvic disproportion, abnormal presentations.