Introduction to kinesiology and human movement and sport sciences. Human movement and its classifications. Abilities, skills, competences, and individual differences. The development of fundamental skills. Information processing in movement execution: stimuli identification, response selection, and response programming. Open and closed-loop control systems. Perceptual systems. Motor memory. Memory systems. Motor program and movement parameters. Selection and programming of motor response. Motor response control systems. Anticipation. Attention and arousal. General concepts of motor learning. Cognitive and dynamic approaches in the theory of movement. Stages of motor learning and their different classifications. Task presentation: instructions and modeling. Feedback and error correction. Methodological aspects for motor learning: quantity of practice, distribution, variability, contextual interference, mental practice, part-whole practice, transfer, strategies and metastrategies. Performance optimization strategies. Motivational orientation and motivational climate. Reproductive teaching styles and productive teaching styles.
Origin of Biomechanics. From Classical Greece to Alfonso Borrelli. The method for the study of movement. Muybridge and the photographic method. Etienne-Jules Marey and the crono-photography. The school of Lipsia. Nicolaj Bernstein, ciclography, movement control and learning. The modern analysis of movement: qualitative and quantitative. Motion capture, analytical reconstruction of motion, analytical stereophotogrammetry. The mechanics of the human body. Body segments as rigid bodies. Free body diagram. Open and closed kinematic chain. Segment movement: Osteokinematics and Artrokinematics. Body planes and axes. Joints and segment movements on the body planes. Analysis of gait. Balance and center of mass. Balance ability and types of balance. The center of mass in the human body. Le Simple machines and the human body. Levers in the human body. Pulleys and cams. Muscle biomechanics. The skeletal muscles. Muscular force. Muscle properties and muscle contraction systems. Neuromuscular system. Motor unity. Muscle fibers. Production of force: relationship between length and force, force and speed, power. Contractile sequences. Musculotendinous unit and its properties. Types of muscles and muscular morphology. Pennation angle. Neuromuscular control and recruitment of motor units. Bone biomechanics. Composition and function of bones. Bones: rigid and deformable bodies. Traction strains, compression strains, e cutting strains. Elasticity: Young module and the Hooke law. Complex strains (curvature, torsion and combined strains). Ankle biomechanics. Strains and binding reactions. Antalgic hip and use of the walking stick. Biomechanics of the vertebral column. Structure and functional units in the vertebral column. Loads, strains and muscle reactions in the spine.