The course aims to illustrate the fundamental aspects of physics applied to the diagnostics of cultural heritage. The main techniques will be investigated in the field of cultural heritage, so as to be able to deal with the physical methodologies associated with the conservation and restoration of cultural heritage, which use photon and electron beams as a probe, providing physical principles basic for their understanding. The aim is to make the student aware of the existence of these diagnostic techniques, to illustrate their basic principles and above all to learn what information they are able to provide as well as the limits. The physical principles of non-destructive microanalysis techniques, an understanding of their limits and the possibility of application will also be illustrated. Attendance and participation in didactic activities will allow the student to acquire basic knowledge necessary to face studies in the field of Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage. At the end of the first module the student will be able to: - know the main diagnostic techniques for the analysis of an artefact, - know the physical principles underlying the diagnostic techniques, - know the type of information, reliability, and limits of each technique, - apply the knowledge acquired to the choice of techniques to be used for the study of a specific product.