General aims of the Course
The course, divided into a series of lectures and in a design laboratory, proposes essentially two chief aims.
The first is to provide the student with the methodological tools necessary for interpreting Italian architecture from the fifteenth to the mid-eighteenth century. Through an appropriate selection of works presented in the cultural, social and economic context, the lessons will briefly illustrate the developments of the architectural activity, historicizing the role of the client, design guidelines, executive techniques.
The second object is to operate a welding between the elements highlighted in the lectures and the contemporary architectural project, in particular with reference to the concrete activity. Organized according to the methods of a workshop, this second part of the course will focus on the open public space and will be divided into two phases: the first will summarize the data emerging from the reasoned selection of squares from antiquity to the twentieth century presented during the lectures, highlighting compositional principles, representative purposes and formal solutions; in the second one, on the basis of what has been acquired, the students will be invited to elaborate a brief design hypothesis referring to areas previously identified.
The final aim of the course will be to allow students to acquire basic cognitive and critical means related to a reasoned framework of the evolution of Renaissance and Baroque architecture, considered in the articulation of its various components; secondly, to stimulate the reflection on historical architecture as a tool for understanding the current architectural reality and at the same time considered in its action as a concrete stimulus and a valid aid for the purposes of contemporary project.
The fifteenth century
Filippo Brunelleschi: dome of S. Maria del Fiore; Hospital of the Innocent; Old sacristy of S. Lorenzo; church of S. Spirit.
Architecture in Tuscany after Brunelleschi: Michelozzo di Bartolomeo (Medici palace and the model of the Florentine palace of the fifteenth century); Bernardo Rossellino (Pienza); Giuliano da Sangallo (S. Maria delle Carceri in Prato, Medici Villa in Poggio a Caiano).
Leon Battista Alberti: Malatesta temple; Rucellai palace; facade of S. Maria Novella. Churches in Mantua: S. Sebastiano; S. Andrea.
Francesco di Giorgio: Ducal Palace of Urbino; S. Bernardino; S. Maria delle Grazie at Calcinaio.
The architecture of the second half of the fifteenth century in Milan and Venice: Bramante (S. Maria near S. Satiro, the tribune of S. Maria delle Grazie). Mauro Codussi (church of St. Michael in the Island, Loredan palace).
The architecture of the second half of the fifteenth century in the Ecclesiastical State and in the Kingdom of Naples: loggia of the Blessings of St. Peter; Venice palace and S. Marco façade; S. Maria del Popolo and S. Maria della Pace; Chancellery building. Arco di Castel Nuovo; Carafa palace; the presence of Tuscan architects in Naples: Giuliano da Maiano and Porta Capuana.
The sixteenth century
Bramante: cloister of S. Maria della Pace; small temple of S. Pietro in Montorio; Palazzo Caprini; Belvedere courtyard; projects for St. Peter.
After Bramante: architecture of the first half of the sixteenth century in Rome and in Abruzzo. Raphael (Chigi chapel, Branconio dell'Aquila palace, project for S. Pietro). Baldassarre Peruzzi (Villa Farnesina, Massimo alle Colonne palace). Giulio Romano (Stati Maccarani palace, architect's house). Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (palaces Baldassini and Farnese, project for S. Pietro). Cola dell'Amatrice (facade of S. Bernardino).
Architecture of the first half of the sixteenth century in Lombardy and in Veneto: Giulio Romano (Te palace). Michele Sanmicheli (palaces Canossa, Bevilacqua, Porta Palio). Jacopo Sansovino (Marciana bookshop, Corner palace).
Michelangelo's architecture: New sacristy of S. Lorenzo; Laurentian library; Farnese palace; Campidoglio square; project for S. Pietro; Sforza chapel.
Architecture of the second sixteenth century in Rome: Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola (villa Giulia, temple of S. Andrea on the Flaminia, S. Anna dei Palafrenieri, Farnese palace in Caprarola, church of Jesus). Architecture of the second sixteenth century in Veneto: Andrea Palladio (basilica of Vicenza, Chiericati and Valmarana palaces, the Rotonda, the Olympic theater, churches of S. Giorgio Maggiore and of the Redeemer).
The seventeenth century
Birth and development of Baroque architecture in Rome: G. L. Bernini (Carlo Maderno, Baldacchino di S. Pietro, Quattro Fiumi fountain, Cornaro chapel, S. Andrea al Quirinale, Assunta di Ariccia, S. Tommaso da Villanova in Castel Gandolfo). Francesco Borromini (S. Carlino at the Four Fountains, Oratorio dei Filippini, S. Ivo alla Sapienza, S. Andrea delle Fratte). Pietro da Cortona (Ss Luca e Martina, S. Maria della Pace). Carlo Rainaldi (S. Maria in Campitelli). Carlo Fontana (Ginetti and Cybo chapels, S. Marcello al Corso façade).
Baroque architecture in Piedmont: Guarino Guarini (S. Lorenzo, chapel of the Holy Shroud, Palazzo Carignano palace).
Baroque architecture in Venice: Baldassarre Longhena (S. Maria della Salute, Pesaro palace).
The eighteenth century
The developments of Baroque architecture in Rome: Alessandro Specchi (port of Ripetta); Francesco de Sanctis (Trinità dei Monti stairway). Florentine architects in Rome: Alessandro Galilei (facade of S. Giovanni in Laterano) and Ferdinando Fuga (facade of S. Maria Maggiore).
Baroque architecture in Piedmont. Filippo Juvarra (church of Superga, facade of S. Cristina, Madama palace: hunting palace of Stupinigi).
Baroque architecture in the Kingdom of Naples: Luigi Vanvitelli (Royal Palace of Caserta).
Student reception - Exam methods
During the 2nd cycle (February-May 2019) the teacher will be available to the students for any clarifications on the topics and methods of the Course at the Department of Architecture (blue scale, 2nd floor) according to the calendar indicated on-line and in the paper table; or, limited to synthetic communications, to the e-mail address: email@example.com
The reservation must be made online. The exam is individual: the student must demonstrate the knowledge and ability of historical-critical framing of the works and the topics dealt with,also through the aid of synthetic graphic schemes (plans, elevations, sections). The documents drawn up within the Laboratory must be presented for examination; further information on how to do so will be provided during the course.
The basic texts for exam preparation are shown below. More detailed bibliographic references, aimed at deepening the specific topics addressed, will be provided during the lessons and / or during the reception hours.
C. L. FROMMEL, Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, Milan 2009.
W. LOTZ, Architecture in Italy 1500-1600, Milan 1997.
R. WITTKOWER, Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750, Turin 1993.
P. PORTOGHESI, Baroque Rome, Rome-Bari 1995.