Part I. Historical and critical introduction to the problems of philosophy of science
1. The problem of the foundation of knowledge in antiquity
The Presocratics and Socrates; Plato and Aristotle; Stoics and Epicureans.
2. The Middle Ages
Adelard of Bath, Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Nicholas of Autrecourt.
3. The Scientific Revolution
Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Giordano Bruno and Nicholas of Cusa; Galileo; Newton.
4. Modern Philosophy
Francis Bacon's empiricism and René Descartes' rationalism; John Locke; George Berkeley; David Hume's criticism of induction; Immanuel Kant's a
priori synthetic judgements.
5. The 19th Century
Auguste Comte and Positivism; Richard Averarius and Ernst Mach, John Herschel, John S. Mill and William Whewell; Poincaré's and Duhem's
6. The 20th Century
The "crisis of physics" at the turn of the century; Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus; Logical Positivism and the criterion of meaning; Karl Popper
and Fries' trilemma: from falsification as a criterion of demarcation to the proposal of methodological rules; the "new philosophy of science" and
the role of history: Thomas Kuhn, Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend.
Part II. Logic and Critical thinking
1. Introduction to logic
Structures and terms of argumentative reasoning; classical logic (Aristotle) and its revisions and systematizations in the Middle Ages; Fregean logic and propositional calculus; modal logic.
2. Critical thinking
Logic, sialectic and rhetoric; valid arguments, fallacies, and para-arguments.
3. The practice of scientific reasoning
Reading of passages from Galileo's Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems.