MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms.
The bacterial cell: Size, shape and arrangements of bacteria.
Structures external to the cell wall: glycocalyx, flagella, pili and fimbriae.
The cell wall: composition and characteristics; cell wall and Gram stain; atypical cell walls. Structures internal to the cell wall: the plasma membrane; the cytoplasm; the nucleoid; plasmids and resistance factors; ribosomes.
Bacterial metabolism: aerobic respiration; anaerobic respiration and fermentation.
Bacterial division and generation time.
Bacterial spore: structure, types, sporulation and germination, and their protecting role in biocide resistance.
Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis: entry into the human body; adhesion, colonization and invasion; pathogenic actions of bacteria (tissue destruction, toxins); mechanisms for escaping host defenses. The main bacterial diseases.
Antibacterials and their mechanisms of action. Mechanisms of drug resistance.
Biology of Fungi: general characteristics, structure and classification. Fungal pathogenesis.
Characteristics and classification of viruses.
Virus structure: non-enveloped and enveloped viruses.
Viral replication: life cycle of viruses with animal and prokaryote hosts. The main viral diseases. Antiviral drugs.
Disinfection, sterilization and asepsis.
HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Introduction to the study of Hygiene.
Hygiene objectives: scientific, educational and operational.
Concept of health, risk and illness
Outline of Epidemiology
Definition and purpose of epidemiology, frequency measurements of health events, association measures, epidemiological studies
Food preservation: purpose; issues; main means
Food deterioration: Alterations; adulteration; adulteration;
Food contamination: biological contamination, chemical contamination, physical contamination.
Epidemiology and prophylaxis of the main food poisonings:
Cl. botulinum, Salmonella spp.
St. aureus poisoning, Cl. perfringens,
B. cereus infection, minor toxins, mycotoxins