Chemical composition of living organisms: definition of atom, molecule, macromolecule. Organic and inorganic. Biological macromolecules: carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins.
Characteristics. The origin of life. The kingdoms of living organisms. Protists and origin of eukaryotes: The endosymbiotic theory. Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
The cell theory. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Structure of the prokaryotic cell. The Plant cells: components of the eukaryotic cell: cytoplasmic organelles (ER, lysosomes, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria), the nucleus. DNA. Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles. Structure and function of biological membranes. Cell - environment interactions. Transport mechanisms through the membrane.
Energy and metabolism
The cell and energy. The flow of energy. Role of ATP and cellular work. Heterotrophic organisms, chemoautotrophic and photoautotrophic. The energy metabolism. Photosynthesis: role and function. Light phase and dark phase. Cellular respiration.
Characteristic plant cell structures. Cell wall: composition, structure and functions. Plasmodesmata, primary and secondary wall. Secondary modifications of cell wall: gums, mucilage, emicellullose.
The plastid system: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts, structures and functions. Polysaccharides: starch and cellulose. The vacuole: development, functions and content. The secondary plant cell metabolism: biological role, sites of synthesis and accumulation of main classes of secondary metabolites. Examples of metabolites of pharmaceutical interest.
Plant anatomy and histology
Definition and classification of tissues. Meristem and differentiated tissues.
Growth and differentiation.
Tegument tissues, conductors, medullary, mechanical and secretory: forms and functions.
Anatomy of the root: primary and secondary structure. Nutrition and water transport .
Anatomy and histology of the stem. Vegetative apex. Primary and secondary structure. Cambium. Wooden body. Secondary cortex.
Anatomical and histological structure of the leaf.
Mechanisms of growth and organ development .
Pharmaceutical importance of roots, stems, leaves.
Tallophyta and Cormophyta. Organs and their modifications. Leaf descriptors and morphology, phyllotaxis. Flower and inflorescences. Different types of fruits. Seeds, role and function. Germination. Fruits and seeds with pharmaceutical application.
Reproduction and growth
Vegetative and sexual reproduction. Life cycles. Reproduction in higher plants with reference to the angiosperms (double fertilization, flower, fruit). Transpiration and mineral nutrition. Growth in plants: regulation and responsiveness to stimuli.
The concept of specie. The taxonomic system. Outline of plant systematic. Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms.
Definitions of medicinal plant, medicinal plant, drugs and plant complex