INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF PATHOLOGY
The state of health, the alteration of homeostasis, the concept of illness.
ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES OF PATHOLOGY
Radiation as a cause of illness: effects of ionizing and exciting radiations
Electrical injuries: effects and symptoms of various types of current on the illness status
Changes in atmospheric pressure: effects on the state of health at high and low pressures.
Chemical agents: diffuse damage from chemical agents, effects of PH variation.
CELL DAMAGE AND ADAPTATION MECHANISMS
Causes of cell damage (from hypoxia, free radicals, chemicals)
Adaptations and pathologic regressive cell processes (particular regards to muscle cells)
Cell death (necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy).
Contagion, infection and infectious disease.
Pathogenic mechanisms of bacterial infections and virulence
Bacterial endotoxin (LPS) and exotoxins.
Pathogenic mechanisms of Viral infections.
The first line of defense: mechanical-chemical barriers
The second line of defense: the biological factors of non-specific immunity and inflammation
The third line of defense: the biological factors of specific immunity
Definition and biological significance of inflammation.
Vascular and hematic phenomena in inflammation.
Plasma and tissue mediators of inflammation.
Acute and chronic inflammation.
Systemic manifestations of inflammation (fever, leukocytosis, acute phase proteins)
PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN BODY TEMPERATURE:
Hypothermia and hyperthermia.
Thermoregulation as physiological responses of the body to heat and cold.
Sunstroke and heat exhaustion, before, during and after exercise.
Metabolic changes and organ functions during the febrile process.
Types of fever.
The wound healing process.
Skin tissue repairs, fibroblast and granulation tissue.
Bone Fractures and stages of bone healing
PATHOLOGY OF TISSUE AND ORGAN GROWTH
Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, aplasia, atrophy, dysplasia.
Neoplasms and neoplastic lesions of the musculoskeletal system (rhabdomyoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, ossifying myositis)
ALTERATIONS IN FLUIDS ELECTROLYTES AND ACID-BASE BALANCE
Disturbances of body fluid balance and homeostasis (Body content of water, electrolytes, PH).
Pathophysiology of Edema Formation
Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis