PHARMACOLOGY II (8 CFU) - Prof.ssa Patrizia Di Iorio
DRUGS ACTING AT THE PERIPHERAL AUTONOMIC SYSTEM
Main classes of drugs acting at the parasympathetic nervous system (muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists, anticholinesterase agents) and at the sympathetic nervous system (alpha and beta-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists).
DRUGS ACTING AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION AND AUTONOMIC GANGLIA
Nicotinic receptor antagonists, depolarizing agents.
DRUGS ACTING ON THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Inhibitory drugs of gastric acid secretion, protective of gastric mucosa and anti-ulcer drugs. Emetic and antiemetic drugs. Prokinetic agents. Laxatives and purgatives. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic drugs. Pharmacotherapy of inflammatory bowel diseases, biliary and pancreatic diseases.
DRUGS ACTING ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Drugs for the treatment of bronchial asthma. H1-histamine receptor antagonists. Antitussive agents. Respiratory stimulants and pulmonary surfactants.
DRUGS ACTING ON METABOLISM
Drugs for the treatment of obesity. Drugs active on glucose homeostasis. Pharmacotherapy of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia.
HORMONES AND DRUGS ACTING ON THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Thyroid and antithyroid drugs. Hormones and drugs of the adrenal cortex and medulla. Hormones and drugs of the reproductive system. Pancreatic hormones and pharmacotherapy of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia. Agents affecting calcification and bone turnover.
DRUGS ACTING ON THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Framing of neuropharmacology. Treatment of central nervous system degenerative disorders. Pharmacotherapy of depression and anxiety disorders. Sedative-hypnotic drugs. Pharmacotherapy of psychosis and mania. Pharmacotherapy of epilepsies. Opioid analgesics and palliative care. General anesthetics. Local anesthetics.
DRUG ADDICTION AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Psychobiological mechanisms and diagnostic criteria for drug addiction. Addiction to opiates, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, volatile substances, psychostimulants, hallucinogens, tobacco, cannabis and derivatives.
Prohibited substances. Substances not subject to restrictions (supplements and vitamins).
CHEMOTHERAPY FOR MICROBIAL DISEASES
General considerations of antimicrobial therapy. Beta-lactam antibiotics: penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems. Aminoglycosides. Tetracyclines. Chloramphenicol. Macrolides. Lincosamides. Glycopeptides. Sulfonamides. Trimethoprim. Fluoroquinolones. Antituberculous agents: isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol. Antiviral agents: antiherpesvirus agents, antiinfluenza angents, antihepatitis (HBV, HCV). Antiretroviral agents: anti-HIV. Antifungal agents.
Alkylating agents: platinum coordination complexes, nitrogen mustards. Antimetabolites: folic acid analogs, pyrimidine analogs, purine analogs. Topoisomerase inhibitors: Actinomycin D, anthracyclines, epidofilotossine. Antimicrotubular agents: vinca alkaloids, taxanes. Hormones and related agents. Inhibitors of signal transduction systems. Cytotoxic antibodies. Immunotherapeutic drugs (including inhibitors of immune checkpoints).
Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. General considerations of pharmacotherapy and gender medicine.
Principles of toxicology and mechanisms of toxicity. Antidotism and drug therapy. Characterization of toxicological risk. Teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis.
DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF DRUGS
Drug pre-clinical and clinical trials (evaluation of drug safety, testing of drugs on humans, phases of clinical development of a drug). Equivalent and biosimilar medicines.
Role of the Ethics Committees for the clinical trials of drugs. Methodological criteria, tasks and organization of pharmacovigilance.